Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans
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Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans
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Proteoglycans or mucoproteins are formed through connecting proteins and polysaccharide in the way of covalence and non covalent bond in connective tissue. Their molecular organization is mainly polysaccharide chains, and the proportion of protein is small. There are several polypeptide chains in a polysaccharide, with above one million molecular weights.
I. Chemical structure
Polysaccharide chains in protein polysaccharide are heteropolysaccharide, and they are called as glycosaminoglycans because they include amidogen hexose. In addition, common glycosaminoglycans in human’s connective tissue include hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, and heparin.
Protein polysaccharide is large in molecule, with high hydrophilia, which has important effects on keeping material interchange between connective tissue water and tissue. For example, collagenous fiber in cartilage tissue is arranged in latticed and protein polysaccharide is filled in gaps of gridding, because of high hydrophilia. When cartilage is pressed, moisture can be extruded out, which can be absorbed after pressure reduction. cartilago articularis doesn’t have blood vessel supply, and exchange of nutrient substances can be realized depending on pressure generated by sports. Therefore, atrophy of cartilago articularis may be caused for not doing sports for a long term.
There are many acidic gene groups on s carbohydrate chains of carbohydrate chain, which have great appetency to positive ions, such as Ca＋＋, Mg＋＋, K＋, and Na＋ in extracellular fluid, so that it can adjust distribution of such positive ions in tissue.
Protein polysaccharide molecules are huge, with large glutinousness, which are attached to the surface of tissue and can buffer mechanical friction between tissues, so that they have the role of lubrication and protection. For example, protein polysaccharide in synovial fluid can lubricating joint surface. As for rheumatoid arthritis patients, protein polysaccharide in synovial fluid may be decreased, losing original lubrication effects, so that it is easy for articular surface to be damaged.
Protein polysaccharide is closely related to wound healing. Glycosaminoglycans may be generated at first and then collagenous fiber is composited during the formation of brood bud after skin injury. In recent years, we find that protein polysaccharide can adjust some protein growth factors. For example, basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF) combines on heparin or keratan sulfate chain of protein polysaccharide in the way of BFGF glycosaminoglycan compounds. Degradation of BFGF may be avoided through combination of BFGF and heparin or keratan sulfate. When nuclear proteins are hydrolyzed or heparin or keratan sulfate are degraded, active BFGF glycosaminoglycan compounds may be released to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Other growth factors have similar action mechanisms. Obviously, existing protein polysaccharide may restrain effects of such growth factors in secretory cells within a short distance. It is of great importance in special structure of tissue.
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